National reserves. In accordance with the UNFCCC, (developed) Schedule I countries are required to report annual anthropogenic emissions and greenhouse gas absorptions. Developing countries also provide national lists, but less often and much less detailed than industrialized countries. Emissions estimates are based on the measurement of human activities (i.e. data such as electricity generation from cement or coal) and corresponding emission factors (see definitions in Box 1.2). Given that future international agreements are likely to be based on this basis, the Committee will evaluate the UNFCCC`s inventory methods and extensions, which would improve their completeness and accuracy and increase the rigour of self-reporting. The Committee is also examining the capacity building needed to regularly purchase stocks from developing countries. Thirty-eight developed countries have pledged to limit their greenhouse gas emissions. As the United States did not ratify and Canada withdrew, emission limits remained in place for 36 countries. Everyone followed protocol. However, nine countries (Austria, Denmark, Iceland, Japan, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain and Switzerland) have had to resort to flexibility mechanisms, with their national emissions slightly above their targets.

[7] Global emissions continued to rise until 2005, when the Kyoto Protocol became an international law, although it was adopted in 1997. For many countries, including within the EU, things seemed to be going well. They planned to meet or exceed their targets for the agreement by 2011. But others fell short of expectations. Pogenic.4 Any change in emissions and extraction from these areas is therefore considered anthropogenic, as natural factors have contributed to these changes. 1997 – In December, the parties in Kyoto, Japan, conclude the Kyoto Protocol, in which they approve the broad outlines of the emissions targets. Evidence that climate is changing – including rising global temperatures, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, increasingly unstable weather and changing seasons and migrations for animals – is advancing national and international debates on reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the main cause of climate change. The main international framework for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system” (United Nations, 1992, p. 4). UNFCCC greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (PFC) and fluorocarbons (HFCs). In 1997, the parties to the UNFCCC approved the Kyoto Protocol, which contains binding emission targets for industrialized countries (United Nations, 1998). The United States is not a party to the Kyoto Protocol, but is considering a multitude of proposals to reduce emissions to mitigate the negative effects of climate change, including an international climate treaty2.

to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.